About this Course

Code TPTY2702
Duration 3 Days

The introduction of new services such as voice over IP together with multimedia services such as video on demand and IPTV is putting increased pressure on fixed and mobile operators to provide more bandwidth in their existing core and access telecommunications networks. Bandwidth requirements for normal web browsing alone are currently increasing at 40% year on year. This creates problems for operators who face intense competition in a market with a decreasing value per bit; yet existing transmission infrastructure has a high cost per bit. This detailed technical course describes how new technologies and techniques are being used to reduce CapEx and OpEx by moving services away from traditional TDM-based to converged packet-switched networks. After a brief review of current network solutions the course introduces layer 2 virtual circuit options using Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) as an example. The course then moves on to Carrier-Based Ethernet solutions. Next there is a review of SDH followed by an explanation of the changes for Next Generation SDH. This is followed by a detailed treatment of Optical Transmission Networks (OTN) including the latest options for Wave Division Multiplexing (WDM). The course concludes with coverage of the pseudowire options that help maintain legacy continuity in the transition to next generation networks.

This 3-day course reviews traditional approaches to transport services such as SDH and WDM and also discusses in detail alternative approaches including Carrier Ethernet and Pseudo Wire services that may be deployed in backhaul and core network applications.


A good knowledge of fixed or mobile network transmission and switching architecture, services and applications and some knowledge of packet-switched networks and IP routing protocols.

Who Should Attend?

Transmission and network engineers who require an insight into modern digital transmission techniques used within fixed and mobile telecommunications networks.

Delegates will learn how to

  • describe the evolution of digital transmission networks in support of modern services
  • identify the key transmission technologies available for use in modern core networks
  • identify the key attributes of Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) in the context of Label Switched Paths (LSPs) and Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)
  • describe how MPLS can support Internet Protocol (IP) and Ethernet services
  • identify key services provided by and the main reasons for deploying Carrier-Based Ethernet
  • describe how frame tagging is used within Carrier-Based Ethernets
  • identify the Ethernet technology choices available
  • identify the main interventions for Next Generation SDH (NG-SDH)
  • identify the six key attributes and architecture model of an Optical Transport Network (OTN)
  • describe the architecture and key components of an Automatically Switched Optical Network (ASON) explain how Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) control transmission resources
  • explain how Resource Reservation Protocol for Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE) can be used as part of the call control
  • explain the purpose and concerns affecting the design of Pseudo Wires (PWs)
  • describe the operation of PW over IP and PW over MPLS


  • Section 1 Introduction to Transmission Networks
  • Section 2 Options for Layer 2 Virtual Circuits
  • Section 3 Carrier Based Ethernet and Transmission Systems
  • Section 4 Pseudo Wires
  • Section 5 Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)
  • Section 6 Packet and Frames over SDH
  • Section 7 Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM)
  • Section 8 Optical Transport Network (OTN)
  • Section 9 Automatic Switched Optical Network (ASON)
  • Section 10 Generalized Multi Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS)

Section 1

Introduction to Transmission Networks

  • Modern Network Evolution
  • Units Associated with Modern Networks
  • Transmission Networks
  • Early Transmission Systems
  • PDH Layers
  • SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy)
  • SDH Line Signals
  • Optical System Development
  • Traditional Legacy Networks and Transmission
  • NGNs (Next Generation Networks) and Transmission
  • NGNs and Services
  • Switching Costs
  • Competing Core Technologies
  • Carrier-Based Ethernet
  • Pseudo Wires

Section 2

Options for Layer 2 Virtual Circuits

  • Leased Lines
  • Data VPNs
  • IP VPNs
  • Overlay Model - Frame Relay or ATM
  • Peer-to Peer-Model - MPLS
  • MPLS (Multi Protocol Label Switching)
  • MPLS Applications View
  • Label Distribution Mode
  • Label Advertisement Mode
  • Label Retention Mode
  • Routing
  • MPLS Shim Header and MPLS Packet Forwarding
  • Architecture of MPLS-based IP-VPNs
  • Motivation for MPLS-based VPLS
  • MPLS VPLS Architecture
  • What is MPLS Traffic Engineering?
  • TE (Traffic Engineering) Label Distribution Protocols - CR-LDP
  • TE (Traffic Engineering) Label Distribution Protocols - RSVP-TE

Appendix A - Frame Relay

  • Frame Relay - Frame Switching and Addressing
  • Frame Relay Frame Structure
  • QoS (Quality of Service)
  • Frame Relay over TDM

Appendix B - ATM

  • ATM Terminology - VPs (Virtual Paths) and VC (Virtual Channel) Switches
  • The ATM Forum
  • IETF
  • ITU-T
  • Current Users of ATM
  • ATM in the Broadband Access Network
  • ATM in the Back Haul Network
  • ATM in 3G Networks
  • ATM UTRAN Network
  • Inverse Multiplexing for ATM (IMA)
  • IMA Circuits
  • ATM Interfaces and Adaptation Layers
  • The ATM Layered Reference Model
  • ATM Cell Fields
  • PTI
  • Payload Type Bits
  • ATM Cell Delineation using the HEC
  • ITU-T and ATM Forum Correlation
  • Traffic Contract
  • OAM Hierarchical Levels
  • Reserved VCIs
  • Mapping ATM Cells into SDH (Cell Delineation)

Section 3

Carrier Based Ethernet and Transmission Systems

  • Carrier Ethernet Services
  • Motivation for Carrier Ethernet Services - Mobile Operator Perspective
  • Advantages and Disadvantages of Traditional Ethernet/GE
  • Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF) Carrier Ethernet Defined
  • MEF Terminology for Ethernet Services
  • E-Line Services - Ethernet Private Line
  • Ethernet Line Services - Ethernet Virtual Private Line (EVPL)
  • Ethernet Private LAN (EP-LAN) Service
  • E-Tree
  • MEF Service Definition Summary
  • Ethernet Label Switching (ELS)
  • MEF Metro Ethernet Network Model
  • The 802.1 Standards for Bridged Networks
  • Service Profiles
  • EVC Bandwidth Profiles (BWP)
  • IEEE 802.1ad Provider Bridge
  • Provider Bridge Network
  • Scalability of Provider Bridge (PB) Networks
  • Provider Backbone Bridging (PBB) Networks
  • PBB Basic Network Architecture
  • MAC Learning in PBB Networks
  • Multiplexing Service Instances through a B-VLAN
  • More on Service Multiplexing in a PBB Network
  • Simple Provider Bridged Networks
  • Hierarchical PBB Networks
  • Benefits and Limitations of PBB Networks
  • Provider Backbone Bridging Traffic Engineering (PBB-TE)
  • Transport Profile (MPLS-TP)
  • MPLS-TP Transport Profile Example
  • Carrier Ethernet Summary
  • Ethernet OAM Standards
  • 802.3ah - EFM
  • CFM and Performance Management (PM)
  • End-to-End Ethernet Service OAM
  • Ethernet Service OAM Service Terminology
  • CFM Continuity Check
  • CFM Fault Detection
  • Link Trace Message - MIP Address Learning
  • Loopback Procedures - CFM Fault Verification/Isolation
  • Performance Monitoring Y.1731 Frame Loss Ratio
  • Performance Monitoring Y.1731 Delay and Delay Variation
  • OAM Frame
  • Ethernet Physical Layer Family
  • Ethernet Physical Layer Options

Section 4

Pseudo Wires

  • What is a Pseudo Wire (PW)?
  • Pseudo Wire Example in Mobile Backhaul
  • PW in the PE
  • PW Payloads
  • PW Concerns
  • PW Encapsulation
  • Control Word
  • Synchronization Options
  • Timing over Packet
  • Synchronous Ethernet
  • Pseudo Wire Types and Standards
  • IETF MPLS Based PWs
  • ATM N-to-One Mode (RFC 4717)
  • Cellular Backhaul HSPA Offload
  • IETF Ethernet PWs - RFC 4448
  • PWs - Basic Configuration Requirements
  • LDP Discovery Mechanisms
  • Extended Discovery using Targeted Hello
  • Pseudo Wire Establishment using LDP (MPLS)
  • Ethernet VLAN-to-VLAN PW Example
  • VPLS Implementation using PWs - Example
  • MAC Learning in a PW Based VPLS
  • TDM over Packet (Circuit Emulation)
  • IETF TDM Pseudo Wires
  • Generalized IETF TDM Encapsulation
  • CESoPSN L, M and R Bits
  • Management Information and Configuration Options TDMoIP
  • Virtual Circuit Connectivity Verification (VCCV)
  • MPLS Ping


  • Frame Relay Pseudo Wires
  • ATM Pseudo Wire General
  • ATM Cell Relay VCC: one-to-one
  • ATM Cell Relay VPC: one-to-one
  • ATM AAL5 Pseudo Wire
  • ATM N-to-One Pseudo Wire
  • Structure Agnostic TDM over Packet E1/T1 and E3/T3 emulation
  • Structure Aware Circuit Emulation over Packet Nx 64 kbit/s
  • TDM over IP Structure Aware and Structure Agnostic

Section 5

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH)

  • Transmission Networks
  • Next Generation Networks and Transmission
  • MSPP (Multi Service Provisioning Platform)
  • The SDH
  • Layered Networks
  • Connections Between Transport Layers
  • SDH Network Layers
  • NNIs (Network Node Interfaces)
  • SDH Functional Processes
  • Further Examples of Functional Processes
  • LOP Connection
  • HOP Connection
  • Multiplexing Structures
  • Payload Options
  • Mapping Transport Structures into the VC-4
  • TUs and TU Designations
  • Primary Level Payload Mapping
  • Pointers
  • STM-N Signals
  • SOH
  • HOP (Higher Order Path) Overhead
  • LOP (Lower Order Path) Overhead
  • Trail Termination Functions
  • Tandem Connections and Tandem Connection Monitoring
  • ADM
  • SDH DXC (Digital Cross-Connect) Systems and DXC 4/1 Systems
  • DXC 4/4 Systems
  • SDH Ring Structures
  • SDH Circuit
  • SDH-DRRS (SDH Digital Radio-Relay System)
  • Sub-STM-1 Radio Relay Systems
  • SDH Management Functional Areas
  • SDH Protection Mechanisms
  • MSP (Multiplex Section Protection) Mechanism
  • SNC Protection and Switching Triggers
  • U-SHRs (Unidirectional Self Healing Rings)
  • B-SHRs (Bidirectional Self Healing Rings)
  • Synchronisation
  • SDH Network Synchronization
  • SSMB (Synchronization Status Message Byte)
  • Network Synchronization Sources
  • Synchronization in an SDH Ring
  • Normal Working - Priority One Clocks Selected
  • Failure of (W) at NE (A)
  • Failure of (W) and (P) at Node A

Section 6
  • Packet and Frames over SDH
  • Next Generation SDH
  • Drivers for VCAT
  • SDH Overheads for GFP and VCAT
  • VCAT Overhead
  • VCAT Support for HVCs
  • VCAT Example
  • LCAS Example
  • GFP (Generic Framing Procedure)
  • Next Generation SDH Summary

Section 7

Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM)

  • Light
  • Radio Fundamentals - The EM (Electromagnetic) Wave
  • Properties of EM Waves
  • Radio Fundamentals - The EM Spectrum
  • Snell's Law of Reflection and Refraction
  • Faraday Effect
  • Birefringence
  • Phase Shift
  • Diffraction
  • Prisms
  • Super Prisms
  • Optical Fibre
  • Cone of Acceptance
  • Impurities
  • Scattering
  • Dispersion
  • Dispersion Compensation
  • Legacy Optical Systems - Evolution
  • Wave Division Multiplexing
  • The Multiplexing/Demultiplexing Process
  • The Difference Between CWDM and DWDM
  • The ITU WDM Frequency Grids
  • CWDM Characteristics
  • DWDM
  • Types of DWDM Systems
  • Practical DWDM Transmission Systems
  • The Optical Multiplexer/Demultiplexer
  • Optical Amplifiers - The Erbium Doped Fibre Amplifier
  • Single-Stage and Two-Stage Optical Amplifiers
  • Practical Issues
  • Fibre Bands and Other Optical Amplifiers
  • Simple Network Architectures - Wave Equalization
  • Optical Line Systems
  • Transceivers and Transponders
  • WDM Systems
  • Optical Add Drop Multiplexer (OADM)
  • Optical Devices - OXC (Optical Cross-Connect)
  • Cross Connecting Techniques
  • Switches
  • Optical Add Drop Multiplexer
  • Reconfigurable Add Drop Multiplexer
  • Wave Selectivity Switch
  • Multiplex Hierarchy
  • WDM In Metropolitan and Access Networks
  • WDM in Access Networks

Section 8

Optical Transport Network (OTN)

  • OTN (Optical Transport Network)
  • OTN Standards
  • OTN Architecture
  • OTN Network Layered Structure - OTN Layers (1)
  • OTN Layers (2)
  • OCh (Optical Channel) Layer Network
  • Optical Channel Layer Network Structure - Analogue Clients
  • Optical Channel Layer Network Structure - Digital Clients
  • OTN Client Signals
  • Bit Rates and Digital Client Capacities
  • OTN Clients and WDM
  • Payload Types
  • OMS (Optical Multiplex Section Layer Network)
  • OTS (Optical Transmission Section layer network)
  • OTN Frame Structure
  • Basic Frame Structure
  • OTUk Header Fields
  • ODUk Overhead
  • OPUk Overhead
  • Section and Path Monitoring
  • Section and Path Monitoring Overheads
  • TCM (Tandem Connection Monitoring) (1)
  • TCM (2)
  • ODUk TCM Overheads
  • Multiplexing Lower Bit Rate Signals with Full Functionality
  • Multiplexing Lower Bit Rate Signals with reduced Functionality
  • OOS (OTM Overhead Signal)
  • OTN Trails
  • VCAT (Virtual Concatenation) - Overheads
  • Inverse Multiplexing/Virtual Concatenation
  • FEC (Forward Error Correction)

Section 9

Automatic Switched Optical Network (ASON)

  • Intelligent Optical Network Standards - Optical Standards Bodies
  • ASON (Automatic Switched Optical Network)
  • ASON Layered Network
  • SNP Pool
  • Transport Network Terminology
  • Modelling of a Link Connection
  • ASON NNI Interfaces
  • UNI (User Network Interface)
  • Call Control
  • Connection Set-up
  • Hierarchical Routing
  • Modern Transport Network
  • Transport System Layered Model
  • Hierarchical LSP
  • H-LSP the SDH LSP
  • H-LSP the WDM LSP
  • ASON Functional Elements
  • Intelligent Optical Networking Standards.

Section 10

Generalized Multi Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS)

  • Generalized MPLS (GMPLS)
  • Signalling Protocols
  • Control and Data Plane
  • Link Management Protocol (LMP)
  • Link Management Protocol (LMP) Messages
  • ASON and LMP Identifiers
  • LMP Message Format
  • LMP Message Format - Common Header
  • LMP Message Format - Objects
  • Configuration of Control Channel (M)
  • Link Property Correlation (M)
  • Link Connectivity and Verification (O)
  • Fault Management (O)
  • Link Updates in TE
  • Resource Reservation Protocol - Traffic Engineering (RSVP-TE)
  • Constraint Based Routing
  • CSPF Tie Breakers and Load Sharing
  • Path Computation and Traffic Engineering
  • LSP Generic Messages
  • LSP establishment
  • Circuit Provisioning
  • TE Link Protection Capability
  • LSP Modification
  • MPLS TE Protection
  • Meshed Restoration
  • LSP restoration - Crank Back
  • Diverse Routing

Case Study 1

New Entrant Mobile Operator Core Transmission Network

  • OTN Case Study
  • Dark Fibre Networks
  • Network Architecture
  • Wave Division Multiplexing (WDM) Solution
  • Evolution to OTN
  • Timing/Synchronization
  • Circuit Provisioning
  • Redundancy/Protection
  • Diverse Routing
  • Mesh Restoration/ Crank Back
  • Conclusion

Case Study 2

Pseudo Wire

  • Pseudo Wire Case Study
  • Protocol Stack

3 Days


This is a QA approved partner course

Delivery Method

Delivery method


Face-to-face learning in the comfort of our quality nationwide centres, with free refreshments and Wi-Fi.

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