Bryan O'Connor | 16 April 2013
As you may have read, IPv4 is coming to an end, so what will replace it? IPv6, this demo looks at configuring a Windows Client for IPv6.
One of the courses I teach is the
Microsoft Windows 2012 Installing and Configuring course, the
Microsoft designation is the 20410B
In the presentation, we look at configuring an IPv6 Client.
Benefits of IPv6
Larger Address Space
The IPv6 address space is 128-bit, which is much larger than the 32-bit address space in IPv4. A 32-bit address space has 232 or 4,294,967,296 possible addresses; a 128-bit address space has 2128 or 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211, 456 (or 3.4x1038 or 340 undecillion) possible addresses. As the Internet continues to grow, IPv6 provides for the required larger address space.
Hierarchical Addressing and Routing Infrastructure
The public IPv6 address space is allocated more efficiently than it is for IPv4. IPv4 addresses are not all allocated in geographical blocks, but IPv6 public addresses are. This means that even though there are many more addresses, Internet routers can process data much more efficiently because of address optimization.
Stateless and Stateful Address Configuration
IPv6 has auto-configure capability without Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), and it can discover router information so that hosts can access the Internet. This is referred to as astatelessaddress configuration. Astatefuladdress configuration is when you use the DHCPv6 protocol. This provides network administrators with flexibility in how IPv6 addresses and configuration information is distributed to clients.
Required Support for IPsec
The IPv6 standards require support for the Authentication Header (AH) and encapsulating security payload (ESP) headers that are defined by Internet Protocol security (IPsec). Although support for specific IPsec authentication methods and cryptographic algorithms are not specified, IPsec is defined from the start as the way to protect IPv6 packets. This guarantees the availability of IPsec on all IPv6 hosts. IPsec support was not required for IPv4 hosts, but was commonly implemented.
One of the design goals for IPv6 is to provide sufficient address space so that you do not have to use translation mechanisms such as network address translation (NAT). This simplifies communication because IPv6 hosts can communicate directly with each other over the Internet. This also simplifies support for applications such as video conferencing and other peer-to-peer applications. However, many organizations may choose to continue using translation mechanisms as a security measure.
Required Support for QoS
An IPv6 packet contains a Quality of Service (QoS) field that specifies how fast the packet should be processed. This enables IPv6 packet traffic to be assigned a priority. For example, when you are streaming video traffic, it is critical that the packets arrive in a timely manner. You can set the QoS field to ensure that network devices recognize that the packet delivery is time-sensitive. Support for QoS was optional for IPv4 hosts.
Improved Support for Single-Subnet Environments
All IPv6 hosts are configured automatically with a link-local address that allows the host to communicate on the local subnet. However, like Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA), which was optionally implemented in IPv4 environments, computers are not configured automatically with a default gateway or Domain Name System (DNS) server.
IPv6 has been designed so that developers can extend it with much fewer constraints than IPv4. As a network administrator, you will not be extending IPv6, but applications that you purchase may take advantage of this to enhance IPv6 functionality.
The demonstration is available at the BryanQA Youtube site