The lecture was established as a formal method of teaching centuries ago in the medieval pre-printing press era. Books were scarce and extremely valuable so the teaching process began as a literal reading of important passages from the text by the master, the absolute gatekeeper of specific knowledge. The student had to commit what was read aloud to memory from the outset. Remarkably little has changed over the centuries – lecturing is still the most widely used teaching method. But lectures that still enshrine the original format of a one-way process unaccompanied by discussion, questioning or immediate practice make for a very poor teaching method.